The Procedural Manual on Traditional Conflict Management Techniques is a compilation of traditional conflict management mechanisms, actors, institutions, and symbols that have been used in select Nigerian and Cameroonian villages. Jonathan Tim Nshing (Class of 2015) compiled the manual with support from the Future Generations Global Network.

The manual begins with a definition of what conflict management is, and more precisely, traditional African conflict resolution methods. It looks at different types of conflict in a traditional African setting. These include: ethnic/tribal, religious, family, and land disputes, among others. It also looks at the role of each of the actors and institutions involved in traditional conflict management such as the secret society, village traditional council, quarter heads, village development groups, and religious leaders. Nshing explores the roles of common symbols and ceremonies such as plants (peace plants, fig trees, calabash, kola nuts), rituals, animal sacrifices, and the pouring of libation. Finally, he examines the idea of restorative justice – the examination of guilt, remorse, and compensation. These are core concepts in traditional African conflict management. With guilt, for instance, Nshing looks at what it takes for an offender to confess, as well as what it takes for the society to forgive the offender.

The manual puts all of these mechanisms, actors, symbols, and concepts into perspective by looking at their real-life application in the Cameroonian villages of Bafanji, Bambui, Bawock, Ndzah and Oku, and the Nigerian village of Ikwuano. It is not meant to be an exhaustive study, but an informative guide on traditional conflict prevention, resolution, and management in Africa.
The Procedural Manual on Traditional Conflict Management Techniques is available through www.future.edu.


Through three regions in Liberia, the Community Integrated Development and Need-Based Project (CIDNEP) reached 15,000 people in seven communities. Adolphus Dupley (Class of 2015), Associate Director with Liberia’s Department of Community Services, began CIDNEP after learning the principles of SEED-SCALE.

The influential idea for him was building on local successes and understanding community capacity. The result increased community access to essential services – education, water, sanitation, health, and agriculture – in Liberia’s most densely populated regions. “We created a partnership between all parties so needs are met.” says Dupley.

Prior to enrolling in the Graduate School, Dupley ran the predecessor project to CIDNEP. It used a one-size-fits-all approach. “There was no particular attention being paid to community capacity, knowledge, and involvement,” he remarks.

The Community Integrated Development and Needs-Based Project reached more people in its first year than its predecessor ever did. More than half are women. “We have made interventions in areas of gender where for the first time in some of these communities women are now playing major leadership roles,” notes Dupley. In addition to gender equity, the project addresses underground water pollution, forest resource management, and peacebuilding.


When Future Generations Graduate School Professor Firew Kefyalew was asked by a colleague to recommend a possible site for continued peacebuilding action research, his mind trailed to the Horn of Africa region (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Somalia). This is a region he thought he knew well, for it has not been free from war and conflict for at least the last forty years. Currently, Somalia is the most affected country, plagued by a terrorist group call itself Al-Shabaab (meaning youth/youngsters).
Banner in Hargeisa showing former presidents of Somaliland.
Somalia is unique because it has a peaceful “country” within it – the Republic of Somaliland. Somaliland declared its separation from the greater Republic of Somalia in 1991, but it does not have international recognition as a separate country. Taking advantage of Somaliland’s peacebuilding efforts of the last two decades, and the presence of a Future Generations student in the republic, Kefyalew made a 3.5 day trip to Hargeisa, Somaliland’s capital. “I have to admit that my knowledge of Somaliland, though a close neighbor to my country Ethiopia, was inadequate before this visit,” Kefyalew said. “What we often hear in Ethiopia is about Somalia, which has been stateless for a long time, and is now deeply troubled by Al-Shabaab. We do not hear about Somaliland – the self-declared state.
Kefyalew’s visit to Hargeisa was immensely informative and successful in terms of attaining the objective he had: learning from the ground about research needs in relation to peacebuilding by taking Somaliland as a case study. Thanks to Abdishakur Hassan-Kayd (Class of 2017), Kefyalew was able to meet with fifteen senior government officials, civil society/community leaders, and academics during his short visit. He is now exploring the possibility of coming up with a research agenda that is applicable to Somalia in particular, and the Horn of Africa in general.
“I found it insightful to learn about Somaliland’s hybrid approach to governance, which is the co-functioning of a clan-based structure represented by the House of Elders of the various clans of the country, and the formal government structure consisting of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. One other thing that caught my eye was a row of portraits of ex-presidents of this young nation. This is in stark contrast to what is commonplace elsewhere in Africa where incumbents almost always condemn their predecessors. Somalilanders’ choice to honor those who have served their ‘country’ regardless of their party affiliation is exemplary!”
Professor Kefyalew (L) and Abdishakur Hassan-Kayd (2017)
 The enthusiasm and resolve of the youth (fifteen to thirty years of age), which make up 70% of Somaliland’s population, to build a peaceful Somaliland against a backdrop of radicalized youth groups in the rest of Somalia is also noteworthy. The high value these youth place on education, and the respect for traditional systems and elders that seem biblical are some of the observations Kefyalew noted with admiration. He plans to systematically explore his observations further, and look at how they can be beneficial to the region and the rest of Africa.
An often-heard sociopolitical rhetoric in present-day Africa is about the role of the youth in the development of the continent. This emanates from the fact that over 40% of Africa’s population is within the youth age range. Paradoxically, Africa seems to have included participation in war and conflict among the developmental tasks of the youth. Somaliland’s efforts, and the spirit that surrounds their youth, defies this trend.
Following on this exploratory listening visit to Somaliland, Future Generations is now working hard to hone in on research questions and collaborations that build on its institutional strengths and history. Graduate School faculty are excited about the possibilities and look forward to sharing more information soon.